Capnometers are medical devices used to measure the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in a patient’s breath during anaesthesia or resuscitation. These devices are essential in monitoring the respiratory system of patients during surgeries and in critical care units. There are different types of capnometers available in the market, each with its unique features and capabilities.
There are mainly 5 types of capnometers are available in the market.
1. Mainstream Capnometer
The mainstream capnometer is the most commonly used type of capnometer. It is connected directly to the patient’s endotracheal tube or breathing circuit, and it measures the CO2 concentration in real-time. The mainstream capnometer has an infrared sensor that detects the CO2 concentration as the gas passes through the breathing circuit.
2. Sidestream Capnometer
The sidestream capnometer is an alternative to the mainstream capnometer. It is connected to the patient’s breathing circuit by a sampling tube that aspirates a small amount of gas from the breathing circuit and directs it to the capnometer for analysis. The sidestream capnometer is suitable for patients who are not intubated, as it can be used with a nasal cannula or face mask.
3. Microstream Capnometer
The microstream capnometer is a type of sidestream capnometer that uses a microsampling technique to measure the CO2 concentration. It aspirates a small amount of gas from the patient’s airway and analyzes it using a proprietary infrared sensor. The microstream capnometer is ideal for use in patients with low tidal volumes or those undergoing procedural sedation. (such as Neonates)
4. Colorimetric Capnometer
The colourimetric capnometer is a disposable device that uses a chemical reaction to detect the presence of CO2 in exhaled air. The device contains a pH-sensitive indicator that changes colour when exposed to CO2. The colourimetric capnometer is a low-cost alternative to electronic capnometers, and it is commonly used in emergency situations or low-resource settings.
5. Transcutaneous Capnometer
The transcutaneous capnometer is a non-invasive device that measures the CO2 concentration in the patient’s blood through the skin. It uses a heated sensor that is placed on the patient’s skin, and it measures the amount of CO2 that diffuses through the skin into the sensor. The transcutaneous capnometer is commonly used in neonatal and pediatric patients, as it is less invasive than other types of capnometers.
In conclusion, there are different types of capnometers available in the market, each with its unique features and capabilities. The choice of the type of capnometer to use depends on the patient’s condition, the type of procedure, and the availability of resources.
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